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Educational Studies

(For 2013–2014 academic year)

Professor D.K. Johnston
Associate Professors Palmer (Chair), Regenspan
Assistant Professors Clonan, Kagle, Ríos-Rojas, M. Stern, Woolley

The Department of Educational Studies offers two distinct undergraduate programs: (1) a major or minor in educational studies and (2) a preparation program for students intending to teach at either the elementary or secondary level.

The department also offers a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program for students preparing to teach at the secondary level.

Given these programs, the department offers a comprehensive study of formal and informal educational institutions and practices and the ways they are affected by social forces. Interdisciplinary by design, classes draw on diverse methods of inquiry to analyze critically the historical and contemporary ways that people educate and are educated in the United States and societies across the globe. Theory, research and practice work together to help students become more informed as consumers and producers of knowledge in a variety of educational contexts. Students learn to ask questions about the relationships between knowledge, power, and identity in educational contexts and to reimagine education and its contribution to a democratic society.

Major Program

Courses are designed for liberal arts students interested in studying the problems and prospects of education, the nature and function of educational inquiry, the processes and outcomes of educational practices, the role of educational theory in school practice, and the relation of educational institutions to other social institutions. In these courses students are exposed to a variety of methodologies and perspectives. To major in educational studies, students take nine courses in the department, EDUC 101 and eight additional courses. These courses must include at least one course from each of the following four areas:

Area I:  Historical, Philosophical, and Political Foundations 206, 210, 241, 309, 310, 311, 417, 420

Area II:  Developmental Foundations 204, 306, 307, 321, 331, 332/332L, 414, 416

Area III:  Social and Cultural Foundations 245, 303, 305, 308, 312, 415, 418

Area IV:  Research Foundations 225, 226

Normally EDUC 101 is taken as the first course in educational studies. It is a prerequisite, unless permission of instructor is obtained, for the following courses: 204, 206, 210, 241, 245, 303, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 321, and 331. Students must receive instructor approval for 226, 331, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418 and 420. The program must include two seminars.

All courses, with the exception of 451, 453, 454, and 455, will be counted toward the major. EDUC 313 does not normally count towards the major. Students may count up to two independent study courses for major credit, but no independent study course may substitute for area requirements. EDUC 202 may be counted as an elective. One of the nine courses may be taught by a non-department educational studies professor. A minimum GPA of 2.00 is required for the nine courses that are counted for major credit. All courses taken for the major are counted in the GPA. All senior educational studies majors must participate in the capstone experience.

Minor Program

For the minor in educational studies, students take five courses. One is EDUC 101 and the rest are distributed among areas I, II, and III. One area IV course may count for one of the five courses necessary for the minor.

Honors and High Honors

Majors with an overall GPA of 3.30 and a departmental GPA of 3.50 are eligible for graduation with honors. A departmental GPA of 3.70 is required for high honors. Students must complete a research methods course prior to undertaking honors research. In the senior year each candidate submits an honors paper that must be defended orally before a department honors committee. Additional information for honors candidates is available in the department office.

Awards

See Honors and Awards: Educational Studies in Chapter VI.

The Teacher Preparation Program

The preparation of teachers is an all-university responsibility, generally directed by the Department of Educational Studies. The program encompasses liberal studies in education as well as studies and experiences designed to develop teaching effectiveness and professional leadership. The emphasis is on developing the student’s ability to relate knowledge and theory to skillful teaching in the interest of promoting greater social justice and environmental sustainability. Colgate’s undergraduate adolescence and childhood certification programs and the MAT adolescence programs are accredited by the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) for a period of five years from December 20, 2007, until December 20, 2012 (currently in review).

Students who wish to enter the program should submit an application to the department administrative assistant as soon as possible during their first year at Colgate, but no later than November 1 of their sophomore year. An overall Colgate GPA of at least 2.50 is required at the time of application. Application materials include a letter of intention by the student and a letter of recommendation by a Colgate faculty member. Acceptance into a teacher certification program does not guarantee acceptance into the student-teaching semester.

Students are tentatively approved for student teaching in the fall of their senior year. Final approval depends on successful completion of all prerequisite courses in their program by the end of the fall term. A decision is made by the department to approve a candidate for student teaching based on previous academic performance at Colgate as well as the apparent suitability of the candidate for the teaching profession. In addition, the student must submit to the program a letter of recommendation written by an individual who has observed the student in some teaching/learning capacity in a school setting. In general, the following GPA requirements will apply: for the secondary teaching programs, students should maintain a 2.90 GPA in education courses, 2.90 in the teaching field, and 2.90 overall; for the elementary teaching program, students will be expected to have a 2.90 GPA in education courses and a 2.90 overall.

In addition, although the department will make every effort to accommodate all students who wish to teach, the size of the department and its geographic location limit the number of students who can be served in any one year. If more students apply for student teaching than the program and the local schools can handle, admission will be determined on a competitive basis.

Candidates for teacher certification in New York must pass competency examinations prepared by the State Education Department. (For comparative data from Colgate and other teacher education programs within New York State see www.highered.nysed.gov/tcert/airr.htm.) Initial certification is available to U.S. citizens and to non-citizens who have completed a letter of intent to become a U.S. citizen. Teacher certification students are required to spend a minimum of 100 hours in a variety of field experiences related to coursework prior to student teaching. Please note that completing certification requirements is not the same as majoring in educational studies.

Students who wish to gain New York State teacher certification have the option of completing their professional semester in the fall term following graduation as part of the ninth semester program. To be eligible for this special program, students must have received their Colgate degree in the academic year prior to the professional semester and completed all other certification prerequisites prior to enrolling in the ninth semester.  In the ninth semester, students are allowed to enroll only in the professional semester courses, which consist of two or three seminars (depending upon adolescence or childhood certification) and student teaching. Students admitted into the ninth semester program will be charged a small administrative fee (currently waived), must meet the usual requirements for enrollment at Colgate (such as proof of health insurance), and are responsible for locating their own off-campus housing. Students interested in the ninth semester program should meet with an educational studies faculty member to determine if they are eligible and apply to the program in the spring of their senior year.

Adolescence Certification Programs

There are two ways to become a secondary school teacher at Colgate. The first is through the undergraduate teacher education program, which can be completed in the four-year undergraduate period. The second is through Colgate’s MAT program. In both the MAT and undergraduate programs, certification is available in English, history, mathematics, chemistry, biology, earth science, and physics; however, certification in chemistry, biology, and physics is more easily completed in the MAT program. Colgate’s undergraduate adolescence certification program and the MAT adolescence programs are accredited by the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) for a period of five years from December 20, 2007, until December 20, 2012 (currently in review).

A.  The Undergraduate Program   To become certified as a secondary school teacher, students complete a major with specific course requirements in the subject they plan to teach. (Each student works closely with his or her educational studies adviser to plan a program of study that meets the certification guidelines for the chosen discipline. Students reserve the spring term of their senior year for student teaching.) Additionally, students take nine educational studies courses, which include

Education as a Social Institution
  • EDUC 101, The American School
  • One course on social and cultural diversity in schooling, teaching, and learning from EDUC 245, 303, 305, 308, 310, 311, 312, or 418
The Nature of Childhood Education and Development
  • EDUC 202, The Teaching of Reading
  • EDUC 204, Child and Adolescent Development
  • EDUC 306, Teaching and Learning, or EDUC 321, Educational Psychology, or EDUC 331, Teaching and Learning in the Schools
  • EDUC 307, Special Education
  • EDUC 454, Diagnosis and Remediation of Reading Problems
  • EDUC 455, Student Teaching
Seminar on Curriculum and Instruction
  • EDUC 453, Science/Mathematics, or EDUC 451, English/Social Studies
Recommended Additional Electives
  • EDUC 206, Curriculum Theory
  • EDUC 309, Philosophies of Education
  • EDUC 416, Seminar on Moral Development and Education
Other Requirements
  • Fieldwork – 100 hours
  • Child abuse workshop (two hours of training in the identification of suspected child abuse/maltreatment)
  • Violence intervention and prevention workshop
  • Fingerprinting
B.  The MAT (Master of Arts in Teaching) Program in secondary school certification is available to students with or without undergraduate course work in education. For further information, see “Master of Arts in Teaching” in Chapter VIII. Colgate University contributes approximately 80 percent of the total tuition costs for MAT students. For all courses taken toward their degrees, prior to registration, MAT students must fill out a graduate credit agreement form for undergraduate courses, available online or from the registrar’s office. All graduate-level courses taken by MAT students will be recorded on transcripts with 500-level numbering. MAT students are required to take courses in educational studies and their certification area.

Childhood Certification Program   The elementary certification program is offered at the undergraduate level only. The program leads to certification in grades 1–6. It combines a major in an academic field with courses in educational theory and practice. Students who complete the program will have a strong background in teacher education and a New York State approved major from a department on campus. Colgate’s undergraduate childhood certification program is accredited by the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) for a period of five years from December 20, 2007, until December 20, 2012 (currently in review).

Students should begin the certification program as early as possible, but no later than the beginning of their sophomore year. Students must formally apply to the program by November 1 of their sophomore year, and it is strongly recommended that they apply during their first year at Colgate. Students must reserve the spring term of their senior year for student teaching, two teaching seminars, and an advanced course on the diagnosis and remediation of reading problems.

Requirements for Childhood Certification
  • EDUC 101, The American School
  • One course from EDUC 245, 303, 305, 308, 310, 311, 312, or 418
  • EDUC 202, The Teaching of Reading
  • EDUC 204, Child and Adolescent Development
  • EDUC 306, Teaching and Learning, or EDUC 321, Educational Psychology, or EDUC 331, Teaching and Learning in the Schools
  • EDUC 307, Special Education
  • Introductory Fieldwork Practicum (100 hours)
  • EDUC 451, Seminar on Teaching English and Social Studies
  • EDUC 453, Seminar on Teaching Science and Mathematics
  • EDUC 454, Diagnosis and Remediation of Reading Problems
  • EDUC 455, Student Teaching
  • One laboratory science course in biology, chemistry, physics, geology, or astronomy
  • One American history course
  • One computer literacy course from COSC 100, EDUC 225, MATH 102/CORE 143, or PSYC 309
  • One mathematics course
Other Requirements
  • Fieldwork — 100 hours
  • Child abuse workshop (two hours of training in the identification of suspected child abuse/maltreatment)
  • Violence intervention and prevention workshop
  • Fingerprinting

Successful completion of all requirements in all certification programs leads to recommendation for New York State initial teacher certification.

Course Offerings

EDUC courses count toward the Social Relations, Institutions, and Agents area of inquiry requirement, unless otherwise noted.

101  The American School
Staff
An introductory analysis of American education. Readings from varied texts provide exposure to historical and philosophical foundations of schooling, contemporary problems, and the possible future of American education. Not open to juniors or seniors.

202  The Teaching of Reading
S. Woolley
An introduction to the process of reading, and to reading in elementary and secondary schools. It is designed primarily for students in the student teaching program. Students study theories of language acquisition and the development of reading skills. Students explore a variety of approaches to the teaching of reading as practiced in the elementary school and strategies of reading necessary to read in content areas. EDUC 202 may be counted as an elective, but may not substitute for the requisite courses in areas I, II, III, or IV. This course satisfies 10–30 of the 100 required school-based fieldwork hours for students seeking teacher certification. Offered in alternate years.

204  Child and Adolescent Development
Staff
An introduction to theory and research in physical, psychosocial, cognitive, and moral development during the childhood and adolescent years. The focus is on the application of developmental processes to educational practice in a variety of institutions and on the nature of interaction between the individual and his or her social, physical, and cultural environments. This course encourages students to connect theories about child and adolescent development to ideas about how schools should educate. This course satisfies 10 of the 100 required fieldwork hours for students seeking teacher certification. Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

206  Curriculum Theory
B. Regenspan
A first course in curriculum theory, defining the field and exploring basic orientations and traditional oppositions in curriculum thinking. Emphasis is on critical examination of the principles and practical implications of the most important current conceptions. This course helps future teachers to think critically about curriculum construction. Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

210  Education for Peace and Nonviolence
M. Stern
An overview on how to educate for peace and nonviolent societies. Students begin by developing theories about human conflict and then explore multiple approaches toward resolving these conflicts — at the interpersonal level, the structural level, and all the spaces in between. Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

218  Creative Writing in Public Schools
This course is crosslisted as ENGL 218. For course description, see “English: Course Offerings.”

225  Social Science Research Methods
This course is crosslisted as GEOG 225, ANTH 225, and SOCI 225. For course description, see “Geography: Course Offerings.”

226  Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods
M. Kagle, J. Palmer
A study of the fundamental concepts and techniques needed for qualitative research in educational settings. The course covers topics such as research design and question development, entry into the field, techniques for interviewing and participant observation, methods for recording qualitative data, data analysis, and presentation of findings. Examples of qualitative studies in education are read and discussed. Students are required to design and conduct field-based studies. Prerequisite: EDUC 101. No seniors admitted without permission of instructor.

241  Queering Education
M. Stern
LGBTQ youth have traditionally been marginalized in schools. K-12 education offers few curricular and institutional spaces where queer identities are affirmed and queer voices are heard. From sex education to the prom, most schools and educators operate under the ahistorical guise of heteronormativity — a term used to describe ideologies and practices that organize and privilege opposite-sex gender relations and normative gender and sexual identities. Using critical lenses developed by queer and feminist theorists and critical pedagogues, this course seeks both to explore how heteronormativity operates in a variety of educational spaces and how students and educators are confronting these processes by using schools as sites of resistance. Prerequisite: EDUC 101, LGBT 220, RELG 253, or SOCI 220, or permission of instructor. This course is crosslisted as LGBT 241.

245  Globalization’s Children: The Education of the “New” Immigrants in the United States
A. Ríos–Rojas
Set against the larger backdrop of globalization and transnational migration, this course examines the educational experiences of contemporary or “new” im/migrants and the children of im/migrants in U.S. schools, focusing on migrants from countries in Asia and Latin America. Drawing heavily from anthropological and sociological perspectives on the schooling of “the new second-generation,” the course charts the changing demography of the nation-state post-1965 and explores issues of acculturation and assimilation, the tensions and contradictions of “learning a new land,” and the ways in which cultural and structural factors intersect with immigrant students’ everyday realities to shape school performance and opportunity. Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

303  Gender, Education, and International Development
A. Ríos–Rojas
A study of gender and gender-sensitive policies in international education and development discourse. The emphasis on rights and democracy for women and men from historically disadvantaged groups has not always been accompanied by the transformation of fundamentally unequal and unjust social institutions. This course explores the politics of gender through a cross-cultural lens that draws on theory and practice in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Eastern Europe as well as the industrialized world. Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

305  Race and Education
J. Palmer
An examination of how the concepts of race, ethnicity, and culture play, have played, and continue to play a major role in the American educational system. Students study issues such as social justice, racial and ethnic identity, immigration, integration (desegregation/resegregation), race relations, socioeconomic inequality, language programs, and transformative education. In order to engage in critical dialogue, a wide range of educational research and policies concerning these issues are explored. Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

306  Teaching and Learning
S. Clonan
An exploration of how selected cognitive theorists have defined learning and a critical examination of how teachers teach. Questions asked include the following: What is learning? How does a teacher’s definition of learning influence how he or she actually teaches? What are current ideas about effective teaching for all students to learn? Students in the course are asked to examine their own assumptions about these issues and engage in teaching both in and out of this class. This class satisfies 10–30 hours of the 100 required school-based fieldwork for students seeking teacher certification. Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

307  Special Education
S. Clonan
A foundational course in the field of special education. Students study the historical development of special education through pioneers in the field and through landmark legislation and litigation, parent advocacy, and national economic and social needs. The course investigates all major categories of disabilities that are served through special education programs: mobility, sensory, speech, chronic illness, learning and developmental, emotional, and chemical dependence. Historical and current teaching approaches for the education of students with disabilities are examined, as well as issues such as identification, placement, and evaluation. Special attention is given to issues of diversity and education in the “least restrictive environment.” Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

308  Comparative Education
A. Ríos–Rojas
The study of the relationship between education and economic, social, political, and cultural developments that shape national and regional systems of schooling. In the study of comparative education, students develop an understanding of educational phenomena across national and political boundaries. Research methods, major concepts, and current trends within the multidisciplinary field of comparative education are reviewed and examined. Students have the opportunity to engage in a critical analysis of their educations in relation to other systems of education, both in the United States and overseas. Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

309  Philosophies of Education
B. Regenspan
An examination of the connection between the forms and functions of education and the state which education is designed to serve. Questions are raised regarding equality of access and outcomes, the apparent tensions between equality and liberty, and equality and excellence. The course includes discussion of the ethical dimensions of education; the ways in which education is implicated in the formation of personal identity; and the responsibility of teachers in the formation of personal and social identity. Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

310  Politics in Education
B. Regenspan, M. Stern
An examination of the political nature of schools and schooling. The primary focus changes from year to year; however, the basic question of the course is, who controls American education— and how? Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

311  Indigenous Education
M. Kagle
A consideration of the history of North American Indian education from a variety of perspectives. Central to discussions is an analysis of the ways in which Native American societies in different times and places viewed children and their upbringing. The course considers education as a process of transmitting culture within Native American societies and between Europeans and Indians. Readings include autobiographical and biographical materials about teachers and students as well as secondary studies of missionary activities, boarding and day schools, and changing government policies affecting Indian education. One aspect of the course encourages students to reflect on multicultural curricula and cultural diversity in learning styles. An important component of the course is a research paper on a topic related to the theme of the course. Prerequisite: EDUC 101or a NAST course or permission of instructor.

312  Women and Education
B. Regenspan
An examination of the structure, content, and expression of school curriculum to reveal ways that gender identity is formed as a moment in the general process of the reproduction of cultural consciousness. This course is of particular interest to those interested in the ways in which questions of gender should inform classroom practices and institutional structures. Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

313  Basic Issues in Education
Staff
An analysis of educational values, institutions, and practices. Focus is on the relationships between American ideology and the institutions of education. This course is based on extensive reading in four topics: the social and political matrix of the school, the system and its effect on youth, change forced upon the system, and trends. Open only to juniors and seniors with no previous coursework in educational studies. This course does not normally count toward major credit. No first–year or sophomore students admitted. Not open to students who have taken EDUC 101.

321  Educational Psychology
S. Clonan
A study of the application of psychological theories and principles of development, learning, and motivation to contemporary education processes, with special emphasis on the teaching and learning process. The course examines the research and theory of effective teaching, which include an understanding of such topics as learner differences and exceptionalities, social/emotional learning, motivation, behavior, and assessment. There is a fieldwork placement (approximately one hour per week) where students observe at least one teacher in action, linking theory and discussion to practice. The course satisfies 10 of the 100 required school-based fieldwork hours for students seeking teaching certification. Prerequisite: EDUC 101, a psychology course, or permission of instructor.

331  Teaching and Learning in the Schools
M. Kagle
An opportunity to connect theory to pragmatic issues of teaching. Students work at least three hours per week throughout the semester in a local middle school with students identified as being at risk of failing state examinations. The course connects these questions: How do students learn? What should students learn? How do we determine what students have learned? These questions are imbedded in genuine contexts of a school, which is itself working in state and federal educational bureaucracies. The course satisfies 40 of 100 required school-based fieldwork hours for students seeking teaching certification. Prerequisite: EDUC 101 or permission of instructor.

332/332L  Disability, Difference, and Inclusion
S. Clonan
This service-learning course examines, from an interdisciplinary perspective, the development of positive social behaviors, relationships, and group processes among school-aged children with and without disabilities and other differences, with particular emphasis on the experiences of children with autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities. In addition to regular class meetings, students meet weekly for a 3-hour laboratory session (EDUC 332L) during which the students engage with local children in the service learning project; applying theory into practice. Not open to students who have taken PSYC 360. Prerequisites: EDUC 307 or PSYC 363, and permission of instructor.

414  Seminar in Social Development, Intervention, and Inclusion
S. Clonan
This course examines, from an interdisciplinary perspective, the development, importance, and intervention for positive social behaviors and relationships. Both normative and atypical social development are explored, as an understanding of one enriches the other. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of social and communication behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities. Students participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation of an evidence-based model of therapeutic social skills intervention for local children with and without disabilities. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

415  Seminar on Comparative Education
A. Ríos–Rojas
An in-depth analysis of global issues in education, with specific reference to educational theory, curriculum, culture, and schooling, and the impact of education systems on social and economic development in selected countries. Evaluation of student performance is based on individual research and student-directed discussion. The seminar develops themes and concepts introduced in EDUC 308 and 311. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

416  Seminar on Moral Development and Education
Staff
An examination of major theories of moral development, their philosophic and psychological premises, and their implications for educational practice. Readings include works by Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, and Carol Gilligan. One focus of the course is the connections between theoretical ideas about moral development and both the hidden and explicit curriculum in schools. The course includes assignments in interviewing, a theoretical paper, and student seminar presentations and critiques. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

417  Seminar on Democracy and Education
B. Regenspan
An opportunity to engage in in-depth analysis of the interrelationship between democratic and educational theory. Prominent North American and international models of democracy and their corresponding educational theories are examined in the context of the larger project of developing a democratic theory of education. A seminar paper requiring serious independent research is required. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

418  Seminar on High-Needs Schools
J. Palmer
An in-depth investigation and analysis of high-needs schools. Students learn about the “problems” facing such schools. The seminar also focuses on challenging views that are unduly pessimistic or do not fully represent the complexity of high-needs schools, communities, and their children. Students are involved in service-learning projects with high-needs schools to further their understanding. They engage in critical dialogue and evaluate the effects of educational reform and policy changes. This course satisfies 35 of the required school-based fieldwork hours for students seeking teacher certification. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

420  Seminar in Curriculum Theory
M. Stern
A study of the broad traditions and critical issues in American education. The course covers topics such as the purposes, organization, adaptation, and evaluation of curricula. Students explore the ways curriculum models can influence the educational outcomes and life chances of students. Particular attention is paid to the historical, social, and institutional contexts in which different intellectual traditions in the curriculum field developed. (Formerly EDUC 404.) Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

451  Seminar on Curriculum and Instruction in English/Social Studies
B. Regenspan
A seminar dealing with general issues in curriculum planning and instruction with special emphasis on the relationship between curriculum goals and instructional techniques. Consideration is given to general topics: teacher effectiveness, interpersonal relations in the classroom, teacher professionalism, authority, discipline, and the influence of administrative organization on school practice. This course is required of all students enrolled in student teaching in English and social studies and all students enrolled in elementary student teaching. It does not count toward major credit. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

453  Seminar on Curriculum and Instruction in Science/Mathematics
M. Kagle
A seminar dealing with general issues in curriculum planning and instruction with special emphasis on the relationship between curriculum goals and instructional techniques. Special topics include major aims and purposes of science and mathematics education and interpersonal relationships in the classroom. This course is required of all students enrolled in student teaching in science or mathematics and all students enrolled in elementary student teaching. It does not count toward major credit. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

454  Diagnosis and Remediation of Reading Problems
S. Woolley
An introduction to the diagnosis and remediation of reading problems. Students study theories of reading instruction, both developmental and remedial. Emphasis is on the student’s acquiring the skills needed for diagnosing reading weaknesses. This class is taken concurrently with EDUC 455. This course is required of all students in teacher certification programs. This course does not count toward major credit. (Formerly EDUC 419.) Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

455  Student Teaching
M. Kagle, B. Regenspan
Classroom teaching in a nearby elementary or secondary school under supervision. Students planning to be certified in secondary teaching must take EDUC 451 and/or 453 and student teaching concurrently during the spring of the senior year. They also take EDUC 454. Students planning to be certified in elementary teaching take EDUC 451, 453, and 454. It does not count toward major credit. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

291, 391, 491, 591  Independent Study
Staff
Independent study projects under the supervision of staff members. Outlines of the projects must be prepared and approved in advance by the department chair.

593  Special Project
Staff
A graduate-level research project on a significant problem in education. A special project demonstrates a substantial grasp of relevant theory and methodology.

594  Thesis
Staff
A comprehensive and intensive research effort. In contrast to the special project, the thesis is intended to be more ambitious in reviewing relevant literature, in gathering and interpreting data or facts, or in applying principles or evidence to the analysis of a special problem. Topics may be centered in the student’s area of specialization or in some problem of a professional nature. (2 credits)