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The Classics

(For 2014–2015 academic year)

Professors R. Ammerman, Garland
Associate Professors Rood (Chair), Stull
Visiting Assistant Professors Benson, Holm
Senior Research Associate A. Ammerman

The Department of the Classics offers courses that cover many aspects of the Graeco-Roman world. Students may pursue a major in Latin, Greek, the classics, or classical studies. Majors in Latin, Greek, or the classics make language and literature their main focus. They thus have the opportunity to master the languages of two societies that contributed significantly to the formation of the Western tradition. Majors in classical studies give less emphasis to the languages but acquire a broad understanding of different aspects of the ancient world. Perhaps more than most subjects in the curriculum, the study of the classics is truly interdisciplinary, combining the study of language and literature with history, art, archaeology, religion, politics, philosophy, and anthropology. Most course offerings engage students in a variety of approaches to the ancient world. In addition, a number of courses offered by the department — such as Greek Art, Classical Mythology, Sexuality and Gender in Classical Antiquity, The Tragic and Comic Muse, and Greek Religion — provide a valuable introduction to other courses across the curriculum. Students develop their ability to think critically and to articulate their ideas effectively while learning to examine and reflect upon culture and society from a variety of perspectives. Recent graduates from the Department of the Classics are pursuing careers in law, medicine, investment banking, computer science, and education. Many, too, go on to do graduate work in the classics.
CLAS 221, 222, 224, 225, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, and 240 require no knowledge of Greek or Latin language. These courses are open to all students, but are subject to limitations in enrollment set by the instructor.

Major Programs in the Classics

There are four possible majors in the classics: Greek, Latin, the classics, and classical studies. All majors require a minimum of eight courses within the department but vary in the amount and level of language study required. In addition, all majors are required to take the senior seminar (CLAS 401) in the fall of their senior year. The specific requirements for each major are:

1. For a Greek major, eight courses in Greek, with at least four courses at the 300 level or higher, and CLAS 401.
2. For a Latin major, eight courses in Latin, with at least four courses at the 300 level or higher, and CLAS 401. Latin majors are encouraged to take at least one 400-level Latin seminar, and those intending to pursue graduate study should do so by the fall of their senior year.
3. For a major in the classics, eight courses in Greek and Latin, at least six of which must be at the 300 level or higher, and CLAS 401. Students must demonstrate proficiency in both languages by taking at least two 300-level courses in each language. Majors in the classics are encouraged to take at least one 400-level Latin seminar, and those intending to pursue graduate study should do so by the fall of their senior year. They are also encouraged to take at least two CLAS courses.
4. For a classical studies major, four courses in either Latin or Greek, including either LATN 202 or GREK 202, four additional courses in the department, or outside the department with departmental approval, and CLAS 401.

No departmental course with a grade of less than C– is credited toward a major. For graduation, the minimum GPA required in courses counting toward a major is 2.00 (C). All departmental courses taken are used to calculate the major GPA for the classics and classical studies. All Latin courses taken and CLAS 401 are used to calculate the Latin major GPA. All Greek courses taken and CLAS 401 are used to calculate the Greek major GPA.

Minor Program

A minor in the classics consists of four courses in Greek or Latin and two other courses in the department, or outside the department with departmental approval. Such courses include literature, art, archaeology, mythology, history, or philosophy.

Honors and High Honors

The minimum departmental GPA required for honors in the classics, classical studies, Greek, or Latin is 3.50; for high honors 3.80. In addition, suc-cessful completion of an honors thesis and an oral examination is required. Honors candidates usually take GREK or LATN 491 in the fall of their senior year while writing their theses. Proposals for theses should be prepared in the spring of the junior year in consultation with the thesis adviser. Theses are then revised during the first half of the spring semester of the senior year and defended in April.

Awards

See “Honors and Awards: Classics” in Chapter VI.

Advanced Placement

To evaluate a student’s qualifications for advanced placement, the department requires the submission of an Advanced Placement Examination in Latin. If a student submits a grade of 4 or 5 and completes LATN 201 or a higher-level course in Latin, he or she will receive one credit for LATN 122 for the AP examination that may count toward a major in the department.

Transfer credit for a major is granted for courses comparable to those required for the classics major at Colgate on an individual basis. Evidence of course content may be required.

Extended Study in Greece

The department offers students who are enrolled in GREK 122, or who have completed GREK 122 (or higher), an opportunity to explore the material culture of Greece through a course that culminates in a three-week trip to Greece in May. For further information, see the course descriptions of CLAS 251 and CLAS 251E and consult with a faculty member in the department.

Extended Study in Rome and Pompeii

The department offers students who are enrolled in LATN 122, or have completed LATN 122 (or higher), an opportunity to explore the material culture of Rome and Pompeii through a course that culminates in a three-week trip to Italy in May. For further information, see the course descriptions of CLAS 250 and CLAS 250E and consult with a faculty member in the department.

The Venice Study Group

This study group offers majors, who have had one or more years of Latin or Greek at Colgate, the opportunity to explore sites and monuments of the classical world. The archaeology of Italy forms a major component of this interdisciplinary study group. Students learn about the civilizations of Rome and Magna Graecia through visits to museums and archaeological sites. For further information, see "Off-Campus Study Group Programs: Italy;" in Chapter VI.

Classical Studies in Rome

The department is a member institution of the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome, which offers a full schedule of classics- and archaeology-related courses each fall and spring. For further information, consult with a member of the department.

Course Offerings:

CLAS, GREK, and LATN courses count toward the Human Thought and Expression area of inquiry requirement, unless otherwise noted.

Greek and Roman Civilization

221 The Epic Voice and its Echoes
W. Stull
Beginning with the first poems in the Western tradition, this course studies the epic genre in all its distinctiveness and variety. It explores the themes and ideology of epic, ranging from the heroic to the philosophical and didactic, and considers how the poet deals with fundamental questions: the nature of heroism, life and death, individual and community, mortals and immortals, memory, and the power of poetry. It also examines the craft of the epic poet, uniquely situated between orality and writing. Authors studied include Homer, Hesiod, Apollonius, Lucretius, and Vergil.

222 The Tragic and Comic Muse
Staff
This course examines selected plays of the three great tragedians — Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides — and of the comedian Aristophanes. It focuses on the tragic account of human nature and its relationship to the gods, but considers as well comedy’s response to that account. Other topics for discussion include the role of Athenian politics, religion, and sociology within the plays and the importance of the classical stage in Athenian life.

224 The Age of Augustus
Staff
An introduction to the literature and culture of the Augustan Age, that period of Roman history in which the empire was established and many of its best-known artists flourished. Readings include selections from and works by the poets Lucretius, Horace, Ver-gil, Propertius, Ovid, and Lucan, by the historians Livy and Tacitus, and by the “novelist” Petronius.

225 Poets, Lovers, and Monsters
N. Rood
This course explores the significations of one culture’s changing fantasies of monsters — those from archaic, classical, and Hellenistic Greece — by looking at them in conjunction with some modern monsters. The course aims at comprehending the ancient Greek nexus of monster and artist — both figures with a marked physical or personality flaw, outsiders to heroic society. Readings include selections from Hesiod, Homer, Pindar, Sophocles, Euripides, Plato, and Theocritus. These classical texts are complemented by readings from contemporary poets, as well as viewings of several classic horror films.

230 Classical Mythology
Staff
This course introduces students to the myths of the ancient world, focusing on those of the Greeks, Etruscans, and Romans, with consideration also of those of the Near East, south Asia, and northern Europe. Students not only acquire a thorough knowledge of the major myths surrounding both gods and heroes but also gain an appreciation of the variety of approaches to understanding and interpreting them, exploring questions of the universality, transferability, and common inheritance of myths across cultures. Readings are drawn from ancient texts and from modern critical works.

231 Greek Religion
R. Ammerman
This course covers the period from the Bronze Age to and including the Hellenistic era. The following topics are considered: the phenomenon of anthropomorphism; the connection between mythology and ritual; the status of the dead; the function of the sanctuary; the role of the priest and the seer; hero-worship; evidence for human sacrifice; ecstasy, madness, and possession; the place of religion within the Greek city-state; prayers, curses, and inherited guilt; festivals and spectacles; pollution-belief; Orphism; the rise of mystery religions; and the relationship between Olympian and chthonian religion.

232 Sexuality and Gender in Classical Antiquity
R. Ammerman
This course considers concepts of sexuality and gender in the Graeco-Roman world. It explores the portrayal of gender in classical mythology and examines the legal, economic, social, and religious position of women and men as reflected in historical documents and the archaeological record. Special attention is given to comparing the mythological images with the realities of people’s lives in Greek and Roman society.

233 Greek Art
R. Ammerman
This course surveys the pre-Hellenic, archaic, classical, and Hellenistic art and architecture of Greece with a special emphasis on the political, social, and religious contexts in which art was produced and how it reflects the ideas and concerns of the ancient Greeks, both individually and collectively.

234 Archaeology of Greece
R. Ammerman
This course is an introduction to Minoan, Mycenaean, and Greek civilizations and includes a survey of major sites and monuments. Attention is given to the ways arguments are developed from the archaeological record.

235 Archaeology of Italy
R. Ammerman
This course is an introduction to the archaeology of the Italian peninsula from earliest prehistoric to late imperial times. It surveys the major sites and monuments of native Italic cultures, Greek and Phoenician colonization, Etruscan civilization, Rome, and Pompeii. Attention is given to the ways in which arguments are developed from the archaeological record.

236 Greek History
R. Garland
The history of ancient Greece from the Dark Ages to the conquests of Alexander the Great. Through readings of Herodotus and Thucydides, emphasis is placed on political and social developments at Athens and Sparta, the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars, and the events that led to the rise of Alexander’s empire.

237 Roman History
R. Garland
The history of ancient Rome from its foundation through to the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Emphasis is placed on political, constitutional, and social developments.

240 World Archaeology, Material Culture, and Identity
This course is crosslisted as ANTH 240. For course description, see “Anthropology: Course Offerings.”

250 Private and Public Life and the Material Culture of Rome and the Cities of Vesuvius
Staff
Private and public life in the urban centers of Roman Italy forms the focus of this course. It traces the history of the city of Rome, with all of its political, economic, social, and religious institutions, from its origins in the 8th century BC to the end of the Roman Empire in the 4th century AD. Students acquire a basic knowledge of the political and social history of Rome while discussing many of the ancient written sources that have a bear-ing on the subject of the private and public lives of Romans. Readings include Virgil, Livy, Tacitus, Juvenal, Petronius, Pliny the Younger, and Suetonius. Through the different approaches of archaeological, epigraphical, art historical, topographical, environmental, and historical studies, students become acquainted with the material culture of the ancient Roman city. Emphasis is placed on Rome, the capital itself, and the prosperous towns on the Bay of Naples, Herculaneum and Pompeii, that were destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD. CLAS 250E, an optional extended study is also offered. Prerequisite: LATN 122 or higher.

250E Private and Public Life and the Material Culture of Rome and the Cities of Vesuvius
Staff
This 0.50-credit extended study focuses on private and public life in the urban centers of Roman Italy. Through direct study of the material culture of Rome and the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, the course investigates what life was like for men, women, and children of every socio-economic class: from the grandiose villas and urban palaces to the physical spaces where Roman urban life developed and made its fundamental contribution to western civilization. Corequisite: CLAS 250.

251 Individual Identity and the Material Culture of the Ancient Greek City
R. Ammerman
The course provides an introduction to the history of ancient Greece and development of the Greek city-state, or polis, with a special focus on Athens. Students learn about the importance of the study of physical material remains for tracing the rise of Bronze Age and later Iron Age centers. Through a combined study of literary and historical texts, archaeology, and epigraphy, students gain an understanding of the social, political, economic, and religious institutions that shaped the ancient Greek city-state and provided a foundation for many later developments of western civilization. An interdisciplinary approach is applied to exploring the structures that defined the identity of the individual within a single polity as well as within the broader Pan-Hellenic context. CLAS 251E, an optional extended study is also offered. Prerequisite: GREK 122 or higher.

251E Individual Identity and the Material Culture of the Ancient Greek City
R. Ammerman
This 0.50-credit extended study introduces students at first hand to the physical settings where Greek urban life developed and made its fundamental contribution to western civilization. During the three weeks that students are based primarily in Athens, they observe and interpret the evidence that material culture provides for understanding the social, political, and religious institutions that shaped the ancient Greek city-state, a subject the they have studied on-campus in the course CLAS 251. The extended study places special emphasis on how material culture illuminates the ways in which these varied institutions defined the identity of an individual within the ancient Greek city. An individual’s identity is explored not only within a single polity but also within the broader Pan-Hellenic context. Corequisite: CLAS 251.

401 Senior Seminar in the Classics
R. Garland
This senior seminar focuses on proficiency in Greek and/or Latin, competence in con-ducting research in classical studies, competence in interpreting culture and history of ancient Greece and Rome, and developing an understanding of and appreciation for the reception of classical literature and art.

490 Honors

Staff

Independent study, open to candidates for honors.

291, 391, 491 Independent Study
Staff
These courses offer students the opportunity to pursue individual study projects with prior approval of instructor and chair of the department.

Course Offerings: Greek Language

121, 122 Elementary Classical Greek
N. Rood
An introductory study of the elements of the Greek language. A thorough and methodical approach to the basics is supplemented, as students progress, by selected readings of works by ancient authors.

201 Intermediate Greek: Prose
Staff
This intermediate-level course in the Greek language focuses on advanced grammar and syntax and on reading selections from a range of authors, e.g., Plato, Herodotus, Xenophon. Students increase their familiarity with Greek style while devoting attention to literary, historical, or philosophical analysis. Prerequisite: GREK 121 and 122. Students with high school background in Greek may be admitted with permission.

202 Intermediate Greek: Poetry
Staff
An intermediate-level course in the Greek language with readings from one of the fol-lowing poets: Sophocles, Homer, Euripides. Students increase their knowledge of Greek grammar and style and of the basic literary and technical aspects of Greek poetry. Pre-requisite: GREK 121 and 122. Students with high school background in Greek may be admitted with permission.

300-level courses are taught in a multi-year rotation with a view to special interests demonstrated by students. In a given year, at least two of the following courses are offered:

301 Greek Tragedy
N. Rood
Close reading and study of one or more plays from the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, or Euripides. This course is designed to give students a wider appreciation of the genre of Greek tragedy as well as to increase their philological skills. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

302 Aristophanes
R. Garland
This course studies at least one play of the Athenian comic poet Aristophanes. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between the comedies of Aristophanes and Athenian tragedy, the language of Aristophanic comedy, and the social and political background of his works. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

310 Homer
N. Rood
Close reading and study of selections from the Iliad or the Odyssey. Students, in addition to mastering the epic language, acquire a clearer sense of the place of the epics in Greek literary history. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

320 Herodotus
R. Garland
Close reading and study of selections from the Histories of Herodotus, the so-called father of history. This course introduces students to the study of Greek historiography and the nature of Herodotean history. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

321 Thucydides
R. Garland
Close reading and study of selections from the History of the Peloponnesian War of Thucydides, an astute political and historical analysis of the great conflict between Athens and Sparta that ended with the defeat of Athens. This course pays particular attention to the complex language of Thucydides and to his historiographical principles. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

330 Greek Oratory

W. Stull
This course focuses primarily on selections from speeches of Demosthenes and at least one of the following orators: Gorgias, Isocrates, Lysias, Aeschines. The course explores Greek prose styles and rhetorical strategies by comparing these authors. Speeches from other genres of literature (e.g., epic, tragedy, history, philosophy) may also be included. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

350 Plato
N. Rood
Translation and close study of selected dialogues of Plato. This course focuses on the importance of Plato’s Greek and the dialogues’ structure to the philosophical arguments of each work. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

490 Honors
Staff
Independent study, open to candidates for honors.

291, 391, 491 Independent Study
Staff
These courses offer students the opportunity to pursue individual study projects with prior approval of instructor and chair of the department.

Course Offerings: Latin Language

121, 122 Elementary Latin
W. Stull
An introductory study of the elements of the Latin language. A thorough and methodical approach to the basics is supplemented, as students progress, by selected readings of works by ancient authors.

123 Intensive Elementary Latin
N. Rood, W. Stull
This course covers the material of Elementary Latin (121, 122) at an accelerated pace. The course introduces the elements of the Latin language through a thorough and methodological approach. Selected readings from works of ancient authors supplement the learning of the basics of the language. Open to all students who would like to learn Latin efficiently and intensively; some background in Latin is helpful but not required. Offered in the spring when there is sufficient demand. Not open to students who have completed LATN 121 or 122.

201 Intermediate Latin: Prose
W. Stull
This intermediate-level course in the Latin language focuses on advanced grammar and syntax and on reading selections from a range of authors, e.g., Cicero, Sallust, Caesar. Students increase their familiarity with Latin style while devoting attention to literary, historical, or philosophical analysis. Prerequisite: LATN 121 and 122. Students with high school background in Latin may be admitted with permission.

202 Intermediate Latin: Poetry

Staff
Introduction to Latin poetry through close reading of selections from Vergil’s Aeneid. Students gain a wider appreciation of the technical and literary aspects of Latin poetry through their acquaintance with Rome’s great epic poet. Prerequisite: LATN 121 and 122. Students with high school background in Latin may also be admitted with permission.

300-level courses are taught in a multi-year rotation with a view to special interests demonstrated by students. In a given year, at least two of the following courses are offered:

321 Livy
W. Stull
In this course, selections from Livy’s Ab Urbe Condita are closely read and analyzed. Particular attention is paid to Livy’s historiographical method as well as to the Roman republican period that is the subject of the bulk of his work. Selections from other Roman historians may be examined for comparison. Prerequisites: LATN 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

340 Roman Oratory

W. Stull
This course examines the role and development of public speaking in the Roman republic. Readings in Latin include early rhetorical fragments (from Cato the Elder and others) and one major oration of Cicero. Several Ciceronian speeches are also read in English translation. Equal amounts of attention are given to analysis of style, scrutiny of argument, and study of historical context. Prerequisite: LATN 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

350 Roman Comedy
Staff
At least one complete play from the early Roman comedians, Plautus and Terence, is closely read and analyzed in this course. The focus is on Roman social structure satirized and revealed within the comedies as well as on the unique language of the plays. This allows a glimpse at a more colloquial Latin than that of later poets and prose stylists. Prerequisite: LATN 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

360 Roman Elegy
Staff
Selections from Propertius, Tibullus, Ovid, and Catullus are subjected to close reading and analysis. Particular attention is paid to the development and tradition of the genre of Roman elegy. The Roman elegists oppose their own poetical technique and thematic direction to that of the writers of more “serious” poetry. Students explore this dichotomy. Prerequisite: LATN 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

370 Ovid
Staff
Close reading and analysis of one of the most influential of ancient works, the Metamorphoses. Ovid’s epic poem encompasses all of Graeco-Roman myth, poetry, and history. Students have the opportunity to master Ovid’s classic Latin style and to explore his influences and those he influenced. Prerequisite: LATN 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

380 Petronius
Staff
A reading of the surviving fragments of the Satyricon of Petronius. The Cena Trimalchionis is read in its entirety. This work, considered perhaps the first novel in literary history, offers an unusual glimpse into the decadent world of southern Italy in the late 1st century A.D. Particular attention is paid to the variety of the writer’s Latin style that reflects language used by different social classes in this period. Prerequisite: LATN 201 or higher, or permission of instructor.

410 Tacitus
W. Stull
Close reading and analysis of selections from the Annals of Tacitus and other works. Particular attention is paid to the historiographical method of Tacitus as well as to the Roman imperial period that is the subject of the bulk of his work. Selections from other Roman historians may be examined for comparison. Prerequisite: Latin course at the 300 level or higher, or permission of instructor.

420 Lucretius
Staff
Close reading and analysis of the poet’s sole work, the epic poem De Rerum Natura, which presents the philosophy of Epicurus on the nature of the world. Students focus on the philosophical content of the work, on Lucretius’s accomplishments in and development of the Roman epic genre, and on the debt later Latin poets owe him. Prerequisites: Latin course at the 300 level or higher, or permission of instructor.

430 Lyric Poetry

Staff
Close reading and analysis of selections from Horace’s Odes. Students study all aspects of the poems, including the poet’s accomplishments in metrics and poetics, his thematic concerns, and the relationship between poem and poetic book. Prerequisites: Latin course at the 300 level or higher, or permission of instructor.

440 Vergil’s Eclogues and Georgics
Staff
Close reading and analysis of selections from Vergil’s two earlier works, the genres to which they belong (bucolic and didactic), and their relationship to his Aeneid. Students focus on questions of genre, the relationship between the poet and his Greek and Roman predecessors, and the thematic and poetic development of the poet. Prerequisites: Latin course at the 300 level or higher, or permission of instructor.

450 Cicero’s Letters
W. Stull
Close reading and analysis of a selection of Cicero’s letters (from the more than 900 letters) to such figures as Marcus Brutus and Julius Caesar, as well as to close friends and family. Students not only focus on the broad variations in style evident throughout the corpus but also examine the personal and public politics in the tumultuous late Republic, in which Cicero himself played a leading role and for which his letters remain one of history’s most revealing testimonies. Prerequisites: Latin course at the 300 level or higher, or permission of instructor.

460 Roman Satire
Staff
Close reading of selected satires written by Lucilius, Horace, Persius, and Juvenal. The course examines the origins of satire (the only genre native to Rome and largely free of Greek influence), the function of satire in Roman society, and the influence of satire on later European literature and thought. Prerequisite: Latin course at the 300 level or higher, or permission of instructor.

490 Honors
Staff
Independent study, open to candidates for honors.

291, 391, 491 Independent Study
Staff
These courses offer students the opportunity for individual study projects with prior approval of instructor and the chair of the department.